Sunday, August 25, 2019
Entreprenuership - Essay Example Similarly, customers are issued with Ã¢â¬Å"thank youÃ¢â¬ messages, letters and even phone calls. Therefore, this makes a person to feel valued and an important member of the business (Kivetz, Urminsky and Zheng, 2006). Also, such retail outlets provided an environment conducive to me, and this attracted my attention. The sales people were customer friendly and they always approach each and every customer with the right offer in a right way. However, Wal-Mart or Supervalu have the strategy of bringing back the Ã¢â¬Å"lost sheepÃ¢â¬ . These grocery retail outlets provided extraordinary customer services. All their products were delivered on time, and they ensure that they meet their deadline. The most important thing is that they deliver zero-defect product, and they also have an outstanding people who offer their services. They have complaints procedure whereby customers can place their dissatisfaction about the retail outlet. Additionally, after receiving complaints, they act on them promptly by issuing a letter of apology or call their customers, and also making follow-up actions. Lastly, the three retail outlets always respond to customersÃ¢â¬â¢ concern. For example, there was a time when the products from most groceries were too expensive to most customers. The real thing they did was to offer a discount. Therefore, such kind of services to customers made me pick Wal-Mart, Whole Foods and Supervalu over other groceries retail outlets. Kivetz, Ran, Oleg Urminsky, and Yuhuang Zheng. "The goal-gradient hypothesis resurrected: Purchase acceleration, illusionary goal progress, and customer retention." Journal of Marketing Research 43.1 (2006):
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Application Development and Technology Tools - Research Proposal Example Analysis of the systems - the project team will set criteria for a new application, we would define a set of common questions that will be asked of all partners with respective answers we're looking for that applies to our environment. This will help solidify what parents will move onto the next round. The project team will start researching partners for the application, in this round we are looking to narrow down the first selection of partners with the initial phone interview. We will narrow down the vendor selection to four, it is our intention to set up demos with the remaining partners with respective stakeholders and project sponsors. When this is been completed we will recommend the appropriate phone application. Phase 2: Planning and Development- the project team will start setting up interviews and surveys with various stakeholders for a detailed analysis of current business processes. We'll take the current business process and translate that into a workable document for development team and mobile phone application partners. The document will be a roadmap for the app. We will create a series of flowcharts that relates to all the business processes in each of the stakeholders. This documentation will be used in phase 3 of the implementation of the mobile app. The project management team will coordinate with the infrastructure team to create a common database that is used by all stakeholders so that all information is available. Phase 3: Implementation-the project team will define showstoppers for project rollbacks. Criteria will be put in place to address what a showstopper is. This will be helpful if there is a need to roll the project back to phase 2. The project management team will define the first pilot group, when defining this we need to make sure that all users in the pilot group are fully aware of the anticipated start date. We will also let the pilot group know about the test procedures that will be implemented in phase 4. However, before the implementation is rolled out to the pilot group the developers will be tasked in phase 4 to do the initial testing.
Friday, August 23, 2019
Customer Care In Ghanaian Hospitals - Dissertation Example Quantitatively, patients of the hospital were given the questionnaire to respond to. The questionnaire contained questions that bordered on several areas of customer care services and practices including the environment of the hospitals, the hospital premises, the staff of the hospitals, and the facilities available at the hospitals. Qualitatively, staff and other stakeholders of the hospitals were engaged in an interview where they gave a professional perspective on the issue of customer care at the university hospitals in Ghana. On a generalized view, the results that were gathered have shown that there is a high level of customer satisfaction at the university hospitals in Ghana. This line of the result was agreed by both patients and staff. However, some core areas of customer satisfaction where it was expected that there would be a balance between practice and what is currently accepted as best practice were found to be lacking. Example of this has to do with the use of informat ion technology in reaching out to customers and creating a virtual healthcare system. Based on the findings, it has been recommended on the need for the university hospitals to ensure that the customer service practice they render become those that will match current needs of the globalized health sector. It would be noted that for the greater part of the discussion that was performed, the researcher looked at the results that were produced from the questionnaire distributed to patients of the hospital on their views and perspective on customer care practiced within the university hospitals in Ghana. In this section of the discussion, the researcher takes a look at the qualitative results that were produced from staff and other stakeholders of the hospital through an interview that was conducted among these stakeholders.
Thursday, August 22, 2019
CapitalismÃ¢â¬âa Propaganda Story Essay Michael Moore is the Leni Riefenstahl of our time. Or, perhaps he would be better characterized as a Bizzaro World Leni Riefenstahl, because while she propped up with propaganda the political powers of her time, Moore uses the same techniques to bring down the powers of our time, be it GM (Roger and Me), the gun lobby (Bowling for Columbine), the government (Fahrenheit 911), the health care industry (Sicko), or free enterprise (Capitalism: A Love Story). In this latest installment in his continuing series of whatÃ¢â¬â¢s wrong with America, Michael Moore takes aim at his biggest target to date, and the result is a disaster. The documentary is not nearly as funny as his previous films, the music selections seem contrived and flat, and the edits and transitions are clumsy, wooden, and not nearly as effective as what weÃ¢â¬â¢ve come to expect from the premiere documentarian (Ken Burns notwithstanding) of our time. And, most importantly, the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s central thesis is so bad that itÃ¢â¬â¢s not even wrong. First, let me confess that even though I have disagreed with most of Michael MooreÃ¢â¬â¢s politics and economics throughout his career, I have thoroughly enjoyed his films as skilled and effective works of art and propaganda, never failing to laugh Ã¢â¬â or be emotionally distraught Ã¢â¬â at all the places audiences are cued to do so. My willing suspension of disbelief that enables me to take so much pleasure from works of fiction, does not always serve me well when pulled into the narrative arc of a documentary. Thus it is that with his past films I have exited the theater infuriated at the same things Moore is Ã¢â¬ ¦ until I rolled up my sleeves and did some fact checking of my own, at which point MooreÃ¢â¬â¢s theses unravel (with the possible exception of Bowling for Columbine, his finest work in my opinion). But with Capitalism: A Love Story, MooreÃ¢â¬â¢s propagandistic props are so transparent and contrived that I never was able to suspend disbelief. What was especially infuriating about Capitalism: A Love Story was the treatment of the people at the bottom end of the economic spectrum. The film is anchored on two eviction stories contrived to pull at the heart strings. One family filmed the eviction process themselves and sent the footage to Moore in hopes heÃ¢â¬â¢d use it (many are called, few are chosen), and the other was filmed by MooreÃ¢â¬â¢s crew. The message of both is delivered with a sledge hammer: Greedy Evil Soul-Sucking Bankers (think Lionel BarrymoreÃ¢â¬â¢s villainous Mr. Potter in ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a Wonderful Life) are tossing out onto the streets of America poor innocent families who are victims of circumstances not of their making. Why? First, because this is what Greedy Evil Soul-Sucking Bankers do for fun on weekends. Two, because the economic crisis caused solely by said bankers has made it impossible for families to make the payments on those subprime loans they were tricked into taking by those same bankers, who themselves were suckered into a Ponzi-like scheme cooked up by Alan Greenspan and his Wall Street/Federal Reserve buddies to take back the homes fully owned by (first) the elderly and (then) the poor. In the fine print that the bankers carefully slipped past the elderly and the poor for these second mortgages and subprime loans, the contracts said that the rates on variable rate loans could go up, and that the house was collateral for the loan such that if the loan payments are not made the home is subject to foreclosure and repossession by the bank (which is what the bankers are hoping happens). In Michael MooreÃ¢â¬â¢s worldview, a goodly portion of the American people are ignorant, uneducated, clueless pinheads too stupid to realize the fundamental principle of a loan: you have to have collateral to secure the loan! No collateral, no loan. You say to the banker Ã¢â¬Å"I would like to take out a loan.Ã¢â¬ The banker says to you Ã¢â¬Å"what do you have for collateral?Ã¢â¬ What happened in the housing boom was that bankers relaxed their standards for what they would require for collateral (and income, assets, etc.) because (1) the government told them to do so and promised to cover their losses if it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t work out, and (2) they wanted to make more money; and borrowers wanted in on the cash cow that everyone was milking, from individual house flippers looking for a quick buck, to ordinary families wanting extra cash for remodeling, tuition, or whatever, to mortgage giants wanting corporate expansion. And all were driven by the same motive: greed! Yes, greed. Those evicted families knew perfectly well what they were doing when they freely chose to climb onto the housing bubble and take it for a ride. I have a much higher view of the American public than does Michael Moore. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think the American people are so stupid or uneducated that they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know what they were doing. This wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t rocket science. It was even on television, the ne plus ultra of pop culture! I well remember watching A EÃ¢â¬â¢s television series Flip This House, and reading all those magazine articles and get-rich-quick books on how to make a fortune in the real estate market, and thinking Ã¢â¬Å"wow, everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s getting rich except me; how can I get in on the action?Ã¢â¬ What I felt is, IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure, what lots of people felt. I looked into securing a second mortgage on my home in order to build a second home on an undeveloped portion of my hillside property, and then selling it to turn a tidy profit. Everyone was doing it. What could go wrong? Well, for starters I thought, what if it takes longer to build the home than I projected? We all know how slow construction projects can be. Could I make the payments on the second mortgage for an additional six months to a year? And what if I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t sell that second home? Could I make the payments on the new loan indefinitely? What if my income decreased instead of increased, like it was at the time (and, subsequently, did Ã¢â¬ ¦ dramatically!). And what would happen if I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t make the payments? The answer was obvious, and it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t in the fine print: I could lose my primary home. Forget that! Making a profit on a second home would be nice, but losing my first home would hurt well more than twice as much as making a profit on the second home would feel good. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s a basic principle of risk aversion: losses hurt twice as much as gains feel good. Now, IÃ¢â¬â¢m not really a risk-averse guy (I gave up a secure career as a college professor for an insecure career as a writer and publisher), but even I could see the inherent risks involved when the home you live in could be taken away. My hillside remains sagebrush and wild grass. What about the people on the other end of the economic spectrum Ã¢â¬â the bankers and Wall Street moguls? Why arenÃ¢â¬â¢t they being evicted. Now, given that IÃ¢â¬â¢m a libertarian, you might expect me to come to the defense of Corporate America. Not so. Here I am in complete agreement with Michael Moore that, as IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been saying since the day it was first pronounced, Ã¢â¬Å"too big to failÃ¢â¬ is the great myth of our time. None of these giant corporations Ã¢â¬â GM, AIG, Bank of America, Goldman Sachs, et al. Ã¢â¬â should have been bailed out. In fact, they should have been allowed to fail, their stocks go into the toilet, their employees tossed out on to the gilded streets of lower Manhattan, and their CEOs dispersed to work as greeting clerks at Walmart. They gambled and lost on all those securities, bundled securities, derivatives, credit default swaps, and other Ã¢â¬Å"financial toolsÃ¢â¬ that IÃ¢â¬â¢ll bet not one in a hundred Wall Street experts actually understands. If you really believe in free enterprise, you must accept the freedom to lose everything on such gambles. These CEOs and their corporate lackeys are nothing more than welfare queens who adhere to the motto Ã¢â¬Å"in profits weÃ¢â¬â¢re capitalists, in losses weÃ¢â¬â¢re socialists.Ã¢â¬ Sorry guys, you canÃ¢â¬â¢t have it both ways without corrupting your morals, which you have, along with the politicians youÃ¢â¬â¢ve bribed, cajoled and otherwise coerced to your bidding. The solution? I have some suggestions of my own, but Michael MooreÃ¢â¬â¢s solution is beyond bizarre: replace capitalism with democracy. Uh? Replace an economic system with a political system? Even the Ã ¼ber liberal Bill Maher was baffled by that one when he hosted Moore on his HBO show. How does a democracy produce automobiles and computers and search engines? It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t. It canÃ¢â¬â¢t. Capitalism: A Love Story, ends with a remarkable film clip that Moore discovered of President Franklin Roosevelt reading from his never proposed second Bill of Rights (he died shortly after and the document died with him). Included in the list are: The right to a useful and remunerative job in the industries or shops or farms or mines of the nation; The right to earn enough to provide adequate food and clothing and recreation; The right of every farmer to raise and sell his products at a return which will give him and his family a decent living; The right of every businessman, large and small, to trade in an atmosphere of freedom from unfair competition and domination by monopolies at home or abroad; The right of every family to a decent home; The right to adequate medical care and the opportunity to achieve and enjoy good health; The right to adequate protection from the economic fears of old age, sickness, accident, and unemployment; The right to a good education. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s nice. To this list I would add a computer in every home with wireless Internet access. IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure we could all think of many more things Ã¢â¬Å"under which a new basis of security and prosperity can be established for all Ã¢â¬â regardless of station, race, or creed,Ã¢â¬ in RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s words. But there is one question left unstated: Who is going to pay for it? If there is no capitalism, from where will the wealth be generated to pay for all these wonderful things? How much does a Ã¢â¬Å"decentÃ¢â¬ home costs these days, anyway? Do you see the inherent contradiction? Of course you do. So does Michael Moore, who elsewhere in the film longs for the good old days when the Ã¢â¬Å"richÃ¢â¬ were taxed 90% of their earnings. So did Willie Sutton, who answered a similar question after being nabbed by the FBI during the Great Depression and asked by a reporter why he robs banks: Ã¢â¬Å"Because thatÃ¢â¬â¢s where the money is.Ã¢â¬
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Rockin Beats Essay Rockin Beats is a music store which has two branches located in the United Arab Emirates. One branch is located in Sharjah and the other in Dubai. The Rockin Beats store in Dubai offers: * Latest titles in pop, rock and dance * The expanding collection offers over 1000 CDs including live versions * CDs are digitally re-mastered for the best sound * Reasonable prices and special offers Rockin Beats has a total staff of 19 who are constantly working to provide the best service. The staff of 19 consists of 6 shop assistants, 1 sales manger, 3 sales staff, 1 accountant and 1 assistant accountant, 1 sound engineer, 1 purchasing manager, 3 cashiers, 1 storekeeper, 1 secretary and the chairman Mr Jason Smith. Current System In order to investigate the problem with the current system there had to be some research done, which involved interviewing the chairman, Mr Smith and the customers. Mr Smith, aged 42 has lot of experience in the trade and is constantly trying to make the store more profitable. His main concern seems to be the inefficiency of the system as its a manual system. In order to increase the efficiency, the current system will have to be automated. At present, shop assistants are concentrating more on there manual work rather than giving time for customers. An automated system will create friendly customer service and increase the efficiency there by making Rockin Beats a more profitable organisation. In the current system, when a CD arrives to the store the name of the CD, album name and price are noted down on a sheet and placed in alphabetical order in a filing cabinet, which is placed in the store. When a customer buys a CD, an invoice with the price and album ID, handwritten by the cashier is given to the customer. After the cashier has about ten invoices, the invoices are sent through a shop assistant to the accounts department which takes about 10 minutes. An accountant searches for the sales file in the filing cabinet and writes down the sold CDs and places the file back in the sales cabinet. The invoices are then passed on to the store keeper who ticks off the CDs sold on the stock control file and then removes the CDs from the filing cabinet in the store. Copies of the invoices are stored in another filing cabinet in alphabetical order of the album name. The store keeper has to constantly refer to the stock control file in order to check that the CDs are available. When the stocks become low the store keeper calls Mega Star (the local music distributor) and places an order. If the a customer wants a particular CD and asks a shop assistant to check whether its available, he or she will have to refer to the filing cabinet to check if the CD wanted is available. Communications between the two branches are made using the telephone, fax or post. By the end of each month the sales and cost are calculated manually using a calculator. These calculations are then checked by another accountant to make sure that the figures are correct. In order to check the effectiveness of this system the customers were interviewed in order to obtain their opinions. Fifty questionnaires with six questions on the important factors of the music store were randomly given out to the customers entering the store. The results from this questionnaire are shown below: For Question 1 What do you think of our service provided? Excellent Good Need Improvements The pie chart above shows that 74% of the people thought that the store needed improvements. From question 2 on the questionnaire, What improvements would you like to see?, the customers wanted the staff to be quick in searching for CDs, wanted a service where the CDs not available could be ordered and more shop assistants to offer help. Question 3, What do you think about the time taken at the cashier? Good Needs to be faster Question 4 What do you think about the location of the store? Easily accessible Difficult to access Question 5 was If you chose difficult to access, where would your preferred location be? For this question Dubai was the preferred location to the customers as 44 customers (88%) thought that the store was easily accessible. The last question was about the parking facility, What do you think about the parking at the store? Good Need more spaces The bar chart above shows that 46 customers (92%) think that the parking facilities are good. So this factor will not have to be considered as the customers are pleased with it. The results from the questionnaire show that a greater number of people want the check out process to be quicker. This means that the new system should contain a faster check out process, faster search facilities and the service of ordering music. The location of the store and parking facilities are fine according to the customers. The current system seems to contain a great deal of problems, which are: * Prone to errors as there are lot of human involvements * Information is stored in filing cabinets, making queries difficult * Processes are very time consuming and inefficient * Calculations have to be double-checked * Difficult to keep back up copies * Filing cabinets can get unorganised leading to errors and wastage of time Data Flow of the current system The hardware in the current system is a calculator, a typewriter and filing cabinets. These are very old and inefficient types of hardware used for processing and storing information. This system needs to be computerised in order to make it efficient and organised. A database can be used to create a system which is easy to understand, which means the staff wouldnt require much training, a basic knowledge in computers would be enough. Carrying out tasks on the data stored in the database would be easier and quicker. The system could also be made more secure by adding a password. Back up copies of the data can be stored in case the system crashes. Computerising the system will also mean that communications between the two branches and Mega Star (the local music distributor) will be much faster due to the use of the Internet. Methods such as E-mail, internet telephony and video-conferencing can be used to communicate. There are a few disadvantages in computerising the system as follows: * The initial cost of setting up the system will be high * Use of the internet will make the system insecure as hackers can get into areas with sensitive data * Danger of virus spreading throughout the whole organisation. * Elimination of certain jobs. The advantages of computerising the system are far greater than the disadvantages, which means that a certain tasks will have to be performed on the system, which are: 1. Enter all data in filing cabinets into the database. E.g. Album name, artist, genre, year, etc. 2. Create a query to find a particular CD. 3. Create forms for tables so that data can be entered easily. 4. Create an invoice so that the cashiers only have to enter certain information such as album ID, album name, artist/band and price. 5. Create a form for customer comments. E.g. if a customer wants a particular CD, he or she can place an order through this form. 6. Making the system simple and user friendly so that a person with a moderate knowledge of IT can use it. The program which I will use to create the database and perform the tasks is Microsoft Access. This database will be created for users with moderate skills. The users should be able to carry out queries, add entries and making sure that the system is up-to-date. The shop assistants should check the customer comments daily in order to get the required CDs in time for the customers. When the requested CDs have arrived, the entries for those CDs in the customer comments must be deleted and new entries should be made in the tables. The storekeeper must check the invoices daily to make sure that stocks are available. When using Microsoft Access the computers must have certain features to run the program efficiently. These are the hardware specifications: * Pentium III, 700 MHz terminals (each with 128 MB RAM) * Flat screen monitors for use with the store by shop assistants and cashiers. * Normal Monitors for use in departments. * Main server (with 100 GB) networks all the terminals so that they can access the database. * Keyboards * Mouse * 3.5 floppy drives * CD-ROM drives * Printers used for printing receipts and used by other departments such as the accounts department for keeping hardcopies of information. * Modems used for connecting to the internet to get information on CDs. The software requirements are: * MS Access 2002 * Windows XP Performance Criteria In order to maintain the efficiency and standard of Rockin Beats, certain procedures have to be followed when performing tasks: * All documents of the company must contain the letterhead, address, telephone number and date. * Password must be alphanumeric. This reduces the chances of being hacked. * The password must be changed every month to reduce the risk of hacking. * The customer comments form must be checked everyday in order to get the music wanted by the customer as soon as possible. * The anti-virus software must be up dated every two months to reduce the risk of new viruses entering. * When downloading information or software from the internet the 2 stand alone computers must be used. If a virus enters only the computer being used will be damaged, not the entire network. * The system must be backed up every month, in case of a system failure and information is lost. * Database must be updated as soon as new CDs arrive. * On the table Other Information on CDs, in the field Year the validation rule must be changed in the month of December of each year. E.g. the current validation rule is that data entered must be Between 1960 And 2002. In December this year it should be changed to Between 1960 And 2003.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Factors Affecting The Rate Of Enzymes Activity Biology Essay Enzymes are catalysts made within the human body. Catalysts naturally, lower the activation energy required for reactions. The lower the activation energy is, the faster the rate of reaction is, and therefore enzymes speed up reactions in the body by lowering the activation energy required. (Diet-Health.net) There are many factors that contribute to the rate of reaction of an enzyme. Factors include: concentration of the enzyme, temperature, pH level, concentration of the substrate, and inhibitors. This lab shows the affects these factors have on the rate of reaction between catalase, an enzyme found in potatoes, and hydrogen peroxide, the substrate. The specific enzyme that was studied during this lab was catalase. Catalase is a naturally occurring enzyme that is found in many living organisms such as plants and the human body. Catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide, a very harmful oxidizing agent for cells (Catalase). A single catalase molecule can break down millions of hydrogen peroxide molecules in a given moment. Catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. Hydrogen peroxide is a natural waste product which forms when the body breaks down fatty acids and converts that into energy. Hydrogen peroxide also forms when white blood cells break down and kill bacteria in the body. Catalase is also helpful in prevent the formation of carbon dioxide bubbles in the blood. Catalase can help break down other harmful chemicals in the body such as alcohol, phenol, and formaldehyde (VitaminStuff.com). As mentioned before, enzymes play a significant role in organic chemistry. Catalase is one of the most recognized enzymes found in living organisms. This lab provides the clear and understandable information of the enzyme being studied, catalase, and proves the affects of the factors that contribute to an enzymes rate of reaction. Part 1: Change in Enzyme Concentration Table 1: Enzyme concentration compositions Distance (cm) Time (s) Rate of Change (cm/s) Other observations 100 % concentration (10 mL potato juice) 8 cm 3.02 s 2.65 cm/s bubbles appeared 80 % concentration (8 mL potato juice, 2 mL distilled water) 8 cm 5.06 s 1.58 cm/s fewer bubbles than previous composition 60 % concentration (6 mL potato juice, 4 mL distilled water) 8 cm 6.28 s 1.27 cm/s fewer bubbles than previous composition 40% concentration (4 mL potato juice, 6 mL distilled water) 8 cm 7.5 s 1.07 cm/s fewer bubbles than previous composition 20% concentration (2 mL potato juice, 8 mL distilled water) 8 cm 19.65 s 0.41 cm/s no bubbles appeared Graph 1: Analysis 1: According to the observation graph 1, the major trend shows that as the concentration of the catalase, which is in the potato juice, increases there is also an increase in the rate of reaction. As the concentration of the catalase decreased, the rate of reaction also decreased. Part 2: Change in Temperature Table 2: Temperature (Ã °C) Distance (cm) Time (s) Rate of Reaction (cm/s) 10.0 8.00 5.85 1.38 21.0 8.00 4.83 1.66 35.0 8.00 2.99 2.68 50.0 8.00 4.21 1.90 80.0 8.00 5.52 1.45 Graph 2: Analysis 2: Observation graph 2 shows the relationship between the environmental temperature and the rate of reaction. According to the observation chart the optimal temperature was 35Ã °C. The optimal temperature being the temperature at which the enzyme reacted the fastest. Any temperature higher or lower than 35Ã °C, the catalase molecules did not react as fast. Part 3: Change in pH Level Table 3: Amount of H2O2 (mL) Amount of Distilled Water (mL) Amount of pH Buffer (mL) pH Level Vertical Distance Travelled by Filter Paper Towards Meniscus Time taken by filter paper disc to move to meniscus (s) Upward velocity of Filter Paper Disc (cm/s) 10 mL 5 mL 7 (Control) 8.15 6.6 1.23 10 mL 5 mL 2 7.98.15 16.65 0.47 10 mL 5 mL 4 8.15 7.05 1.16 10 mL 5 mL 9 8.1 10.4 0.78 10 mL 5 mL 12 7.85 8.14 0.96 Graph 3: Analysis 3: According to graph 3, the optimal value was the pH level of 7. At the pH level of 7, the rate of reaction was the fastest, any pH level higher or lower than that of 7 the enzymes rate of reaction would decrease. This relationship was much like that of the temperatures, anything above or below the optimal value the rate of reaction decreases. Part 4: Change in Substrate Concentration Table 4: Concentration of H202 of Distilled Water Trial Time of catalase to travel from the bottom of the test tube to the top (s) Distance of bottom of test tube to substrate(cm) Rate of change of the catalyzed reaction (cm/s) 15 mL of H202 3% 1 5.89 8.0 1.36 2 6.86 8.0 1.17 Total 6.38 8.0 1.27 13 mL of H202 2.6% 1 8.13 8.0 0.98 2 7.11 8.0 1.13 Total 7.62 8.0 1.01 10 mL of H202 2% 1 8.65 8.0 0.87 2 12.8 8.0 0.63 Total 10.73 8.0 0.75 7.5 mL of H202 1.5% 1 9.43 8.0 0.84 2 12.53 8.0 0.64 Total 10.98 8.0 0.74 5 mL of H202 1% 1 10.37 8.0 0.77 2 12.88 8.0 0.62 Total 12.63 8.0 0.70 Graph 4: Analysis 4: According to graph 4, as the concentration of the substrate (hydrogen peroxide) increases the rate of reaction also increases. This relationship was much like that of the change in enzyme concentration. Part 5: Addition of an Inhibitor Table 5: Experiment Number Amount of Inhibitor (copper (II) sulfate drops) Time (s) Distance (cm) Rate of change (cm/s) 1 0 4.13 8.0 1.94 2 1 4.68 8.0 1.71 3 5 5.57 8.0 1.44 4 10 6.66 8.0 1.20 5 15 8.57 8.0 0.93 Graph 5: Analysis 5: According to graph 5, as there was an increase in the drops of copper (II) sulphate (the inhibitor for this lab) there was a decrease in the rate of reaction. This was due to the fact that the copper (II) sulphate blocked the active site of the catalase. Evaluation: Conclusion For each part of the lab, there were hypothesis made in the beginning of the experiments. Each experiment was done and observed and a conclusion was reached on whether the hypothesis for the experiment made sense and was proven. Part 1: Change in Enzyme Concentration Hypothesis: If there was an increase in the concentration of the catalase, then there would be an increase in the rate of reaction. This hypothesis was proven to be true. As there was an increase in the concentration of the enzyme, the catalase, there was an increase in the rate of reaction. This was due to the fact that there were more catalase enzymes available for the substrates to bind to and soon react with. The concentration of the substrate was maintained at the naturally available concentration, there were no changes made. That meant that there were more active sites available to the substrates to bind to. The more the active sites there were, the more substrates were being reacted at the same time, therefore decreasing the time it took to fully react with all the substrate molecules. Table 2: Change in temperature Hypothesis: If the temperature of the environment surrounding the reaction increases the rate of reaction will also increase, until it reaches the optimal point, the point at which the rate of reaction will start to decrease. The hypothesis was proven to be true as well. The rate of reaction did increase until it reached the optimal point. At the optimal point (35Ã °C) the rate of reaction was the highest, which meant the most number of hydrogen peroxide molecules were reacting with the enzymes during the experiment at that specific temperature. In other words, the optimal point was when the enzymes worked the best. As the temperature rose, the molecules possessed more kinetic energy. The more kinetic energy there was, the more the molecules moved and collided with one another, increasing the rate of reaction, until it reached the optimal point. Once the temperature started to increase higher than 35Ã °C the catalase started to denature, which meant the shape of the enzyme would start to differ. The denaturing catalase decreased the rate of reaction because there werent as many healthy normal catalase molecules to maintain the rate or even increase it. Part 3: Change in pH Level Hypothesis: If the pH level of the substrate increased then the rate of reaction will also increase until an optimal pH level is reached. Anything above or below the optimal pH level the enzyme will denature. This hypothesis was also proven to be true. The optimal pH level was 7, neutral, for the catalase. This meant at pH 7, the most enzyme-substrate reactions were taking place at that specific time. Enzymes work within a small pH range, therefore pH levels tend to have a great impact on the enzyme-substrate activity (Nelson Biology 12). Any pH level above or below 7 started to denature the enzyme, slowing down the rate of reaction. Denaturing enzymes meant that the shape of the overall enzyme had changed. This meant that at the pH levels of 2, 4, 9 or 12 the shape of the active site for the substrate to bond to would change, slowing down the process. At the pH level of 7, catalases activity was the greatest. Part 4: Change in Substrate Concentration Hypothesis: If the concentration of the substrate (hydrogen peroxide) increases the rate of reaction also increases. This hypothesis was proven to be true. This relationship was much like that of the concentration of the catalase. As the concentration of the substrate increased the rate of reaction also increased because there were more hydrogen peroxide molecules available to react with the catalase. However, at one point (the point of saturation, which wasnt achieved in this lab) the rate of reaction would be constant. That meant at a given point during the experiment, all of the active sites of the catalase would be occupied with a hydrogen peroxide molecule and the rate of reaction would neither increase nor decrease. Strictly looking at the experiment observed, the rate of reaction was increasing as the substrate concentration was increasing because there were more substrates available to react with an enzyme at a specific time. Part 5: Addition of an Inhibitor Hypothesis: If the addition of an inhibitor increased then that means the rate of reaction would decrease. This hypothesis was also proven correct. The copper (II) sulphate acted as an inhibitor for the experiment. When added, the copper (II) sulphate attached itself to the active site of the catalase molecules, causing the rate of reaction to decrease. The copper (II) sulphate was meant to block the active site, which it did successfully, hence the decrease in the rate of reaction. This meant, the more copper (II) sulphate was added the lower the rate of reaction would be. This is because this inhibitor stalls the reaction time because there are less reactions taking place at that moment in time, due to the fact that the active sites are blocked off from the hydrogen peroxide molecules. Evaluation: Sources of Error Throughout this lab there were many errors made that were uncontrolled and/or unaccounted for. These errors were not human errors, which were tried to be reduced to the minimal if not none. Some sources of error included: the test tube measurements, errors regarding the filter paper disc and the inconsistent concentration of the catalase. The test tubes were meant to be all the same shape and hold the same amount. However this was not the case for every single test tube. To the human eyes the amount in the test tube might look the same but in reality the amount might vary. This is due to the fact that the test tubes from the inside do not all have the same shape, after all test tubes are human made and there is a chance of major human error during that process as well. The test tubes not being consistent meant that there was room for error in measurements. Even though the volume of the catalase and the hydrogen peroxide were measured out precisely, the measurements that were made using a ruler were not. This was due to the fact that the test tubes were not all the same, and that the human eye is not precise in analyzing such measurements. This meant there were countless errors throughout the lab. For many processes the filter paper disc, which was dipped in the potato juice, did not always sink to the bottom of the test tube. Even with the help of forceps and plastic pipettes, which were used to aid the filter paper disc to the bottom of the test tube, the filter paper disc did not reach the bottom. This was because the catalase that was absorbed into the filter paper disc automatically started reacting with the hydrogen peroxide. They were very inconsistent, some filter paper discs took a longer time to be pushed to the bottom and others simply sank, and since time was a major aspect to the lab this caused many errors. Catalase concentration was also a source of error. There were many potatoes that were ground and made into potato juice for the purpose of this lab. Naturally, they would carry different concentration of catalase because of the different ways they were grown. There might be a potato that had many nutrients while it was still maturing in the field and a potato that barely got any nutrients. The concentration of the catalase used in one part of the lab would be higher or lower than the concentration of the catalase used in another part because of the different potatoes used. This affected the lab because, like observed before, the higher the concentration of the catalase the higher the rate of reaction there will be. In the future, if only one potato was ground and made into potato juice would help control this aspect of the lab. These were only three main errors observed during this lab. There were many more, regarding the separate sections of the lab. Evaluation: Next Steps Throughout this lab there were many procedures that could have been done differently or to a different point. Another lab could have been carried out with another natural enzyme which could have been comparable to the factors and affects of catalase. Also, the saturation level was undiscovered for the enzyme (in terms of concentration, and the inhibitors). Both are procedures that could have been carried to obtain a better understanding of enzymes. Another miniature lab would have been helpful if done, because then the factors and the affects these factors had on the rate of reactions could have been compared for a better understanding. There is another naturally occurring enzyme that shares characteristics with catalase. This enzyme is called amylase. Amylase is a catalyst that hydrolysis polysaccharides starch into disaccharide maltose. Amylase can be found in the saliva, produced in the salivary glands and the pancreas. If amylase is added to starch solution, the starch will soon break down to form maltose (Enzyme Lab). Both catalase and amylase are natural occurring enzymes found in the human body and they are great for comparison with one another. If the same lab was done with amylase this lab would help others understand a little more in the similarities and differences between enzymes. One other suggestion would be to carry out the experiments to the full potential. After reading and studying enzymes, it is clear that there are saturation points for the substrate concentration and the affects of an inhibitor (Nelson Biology 12). Saturation points refer to the point at which there is no increase or decrease in the rate of reaction between the catalase and hydrogen peroxide. The experiment that required the increase in the substrate concentration could have been (and should have been) carried out until the point of saturation was observed. This is when the rate of reaction stays at a constant because all the active sites are occupied by hydrogen peroxide molecules and no other reactions can occur. This could have also been possible with the inhibitor part of the lab. At one point no reactions would occur because the inhibitors would have been blocking all the possible active sites for the hydrogen peroxide to react with. This is also referred to as a saturation point . If these saturation points were observed, there wouldve been a better understanding of the affects the different factors had on the enzyme. For future labs, both these processes should be considered, if not acted upon. With both processes there is the availability to further the understanding of enzymes and their capabilities in living organisms. Work Cited CATALASE -ANTIOXIDANT BENEFITS, INFORMATION ON SUPPLEMENTS, ARTICLES, LINKS, NEWS, ADVICE. VITAMINSTUFF A RESOURCE FOR VITAMINS, HERBS, ANTIOXIDANTS, AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE . N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Mar. 2010. . Catalase An Extraordinary Enzyme. Catalase Home Page (Index page for http://www.catalase.com). N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Mar. 2010. . Enzyme Lab Ex. 4. Welcome to Eve. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Mar. 2010. . Enzymes Enzyme Biological Catalysts Diet and Health.net. Diet and Health.net. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Mar. 2010. . Protein Digestion: A Trip Through the Gut. Oracle ThinkQuest Library . N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Mar. 2010. . Substrate definition from Biology-Online.org. Life Science Reference Biology Online. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Mar. 2010. . catalase: Definition from Answers.com. Answers.com: Wiki QA combined with free online dictionary, thesaurus, and encyclopedias. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Mar. 2010. . The innocence in this world has become extinct Though, my purity still stands because my status is distinct. I have been refusing to give the green light Continually declining every invite ItÃ Ã holds all the respectÃ Its just not enough to relinquish in an hour Once it is gone, its gone forever Its just not worth it to me One of my worst enemies is Regret All the hurt and all the pain is hard to forget I dont want to be a statistic So when it comes to sex, we speak of different linguistics. I must add that my mind is pessimistic. What if something goes wrong? What if its sadistic They always ask me if Im clean. Give it up baby, youre already seventeen Sounds like a kid to me Ã I dont know what the fuck you mean. Im just not you, one who lets lust consume Seems like everyone lost it already In this I must say, My standards must be met for it to be given away. That man better love me to death I better be the reason for his every breath Baby dont you see the ring on that right fist Because I dare that man to run off with my virginity
Monday, August 19, 2019
Motherhood in The Bean Trees In the novel, The Bean Trees, by Barbara Kingsolver, we watch as Taylor grows a great deal. This young woman takes on a huge commitment of caring for a child that doesn't even belong to her. The friends that she acquired along the way help teach her about love and responsibility, and those friends become family to her and Turtle. Having no experience in motherhood, she muddles through the best she can, as all mothers do. Marietta was raised in a small town in Kentucky. When she became an adult, she decided she needed a change. She wanted a different name and a different place to call home. She got in her Volkswagon, started driving, and on this journey she changed her name to Taylor. A stranger gave her a three year old Indian child to take care of, who she names Turtle. The two finally settle down in Tucson, where they live with a single mom who is also from a small town in Kentucky. Taylor works for a woman who hides political refugees in her home, and Taylor becomes good friends with two of them. These two refugees act as Turtle's parents and sign over custody to Taylor, so that Turtle could become her daughter legally. Taylor was very unsure about whether or not she would be a good mom, but in the end she realizes that Turtle belongs with her, and that Tucson is home. The first half of The Bean Trees was hard to stay interested in. Although the book had a lot of action, it could have been spread out more. It wasn't until the middle of the book that we found out what was medically wrong with Turtle, why she was so lethargic. Considering this child was such a major part of Taylor's life, and would change her future completely, she was not talked about as much as she could have been. It's like half the time she forgot Turtle was there. "It's funny how people don't give that much thought to what kids want, as long as they're being quiet"(280). I understand that Turtle was just dropped in Taylor's lap, but I still think Turtle deserved to have more attention given to her than she did. I would have liked Turtle to have been the child that was taken from the refugees, the refugee woman showed her so much love.